European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists


The list will help plan your study for the ECVO certifying examination. The theoretical exam questions will be derived from the required reading sections of this list. We remind you that adequate knowledge in the special training disciplines (ophthalmology-related anaesthesiology, diagnostic imaging, clinical pathology) and associated basic sciences is required.


Books- required reading and source of MCQ exam questions

  • Gelatt KN. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 2 Vols, 6th edition, 2021, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Gilger BC. Equine Ophthalmology, 3rd edition, 2016, Saunders Elsevier
  • Maggs D, Miller P, Ofri R. Slatter´s Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology, 6th ed., 2017, Saunders Elsevier


Journals – required reading and source of MCQ exam questions

Veterinary Journals

Review of the following veterinary journals should be limited to those articles relevant to veterinary ophthalmology. The review should cover the preceding 7 years (from January 1st of the year of the written examination, including e-publications for Veterinary Ophthalmology journal):

  • American Journal of Veterinary Research     
  • BMC Veterinary Research
  • Equine Veterinary Journal
  • Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association
  • Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
  • Journal of Small Animal Practice
  • Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
  • Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
  • The Veterinary Journal
  • Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
  • Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
  • Veterinary Immunology / Immunopathology
  • Veterinary Ophthalmology
  • Veterinary Pathology
  • Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
  • Veterinary Record

Non veterinary journals

Review of the following non-veterinary journals should be limited to those articles clearly relevant to clinical veterinary ophthalmology. The review should cover the preceding 7 years (from January 1st of the year of the written examination):

  • Current Eye Research
  • Experimental Eye Research
  • Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
  • PloS One (e-based journal:


Books- background reading (not essential for MCQ exam, but useful for furthering depth and breadth of knowledge, and images may be useful in preparation for the slide exam)

  • Barnett KC, Heinrich C & Sansom J. Canine Ophthalmology: an Atlas and Text, 2002, Saunders
  • Byrne SF, Green RL. Ultrasound of the Eye and Orbit, 2nd ed, 2010, Jaypee
  • De Lahunta A, Glass E, Kent M. Veterinary Neuroanatomy and Clinical Neurology, 4th ed, 2015, Elsevier (chapters relevant to ophthalmology)
  • Dubielzig RR, Ketring K, McLellan GJ, Albert DM. Veterinary Ocular Pathology 2010, Elsevier ltd
  • Dziezyc J, Millichamp N. Colour Atlas of Canine and Feline Ophthalmology, 1st ed., 2004, Saunders
  • ECVO Manual for Presumed Inherited Eye Diseases in Dogs and Cats, ECVO website
  • Esson DW. Clinical Atlas of Canine and Feline Ophthalmic Disease, 1st ed., 2015, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Ettinger SJ & Feldman EC. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine Expert Consult 8th ed, 2016, Elsevier (chapters related to systemic diseases accompanying ophthalmic diseases)
  • Evans H, de Lahunta. Miller’s anatomy of the dog, 4th ed, 2012, Elsevier
  • Gelatt KN. Colour Atlas of Veterinary Ophthalmology, 2001, Blackwell Publishing Gelatt KN, Gelatt JP. Veterinary Ophthalmic Surgery, 2011, Saunders Elsevier
  • Greene CE. Infectious Disease of the Dog and Cat, 5th ed, 2011, Elsevier
  • Ketring KL, Glaze MB. Atlas of Feline Ophthalmology, 2nd edition, 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Levin LA, Nilsson SF et al. Adler's Physiology of the Eye, 11th edition, 2011, Saunders Elsevier
  • Macsai MS. Ophthalmic Microsurgical Techniques, 2007, Springer
  • Mitchell N, Oliver J. Feline Ophthalmology, The Manual, 2015, Servet
  • Seibel BS. Phacodynamics, 4th edition, 2005, SLACK inc
  • Veterinary Clinics of North America:
    • Ophthalmic Immunology and Immune-Mediated Disease 2008
    • Standing Ophthalmic Surgeries in Horses 2014
    • Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (Pink Eye) 2015
    • Glaucoma 2015
    • Equine Ophthalmology 2017
    • Exotic Animal Practice 2019
  • Withrow SJ, MacEwen EG. Small animal clinical oncology, 6th ed, 2019, Saunders


Review articles- background reading (not essential for exam, but useful for furthering depth and breadth of knowledge)

  • Comparative retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve morphology. Brooks D, Komàromy A, Källberg M.  Veterinary Ophthalmology 1999, 2, 3-11
  • Viscoelastic materials in veterinary ophthalmology. Wilkie DA, Willis AM. Veterinary Ophthalmology 1999, 2, 147-153
  • Systemic hypertensive disease and the feline fundus. Crispin S, Mould J. Veterinary Ophthalmology 2001, 4, 131-140
  • Ocular lipid deposition and hyperli[poproteinaemia. Crispin S. Progress in Retinal and Eye research 2002, 21, 169-225
  • Guidelines for clinical electroretinography in the dog: 2012 update. Ekesten et al. Documenta Ophthalmologica 2013, 127, 79-87


Additional Sources of Information (not essential for exam)

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